Your engine relies on information from a broad network of sensors and electronics to continuously deliver real-time feedback to ensure properly optimized combustion.
Whether it’s feedback on the amount of air pressure, gasoline injected into the engine, the timing of the ignition, camshaft, and crankshaft positions, and much more. Errors like P0113 appear when one or more of them malfunction or produce inconsistent readings.
The temperature of the incoming air is one of the measurements that is essential for the engine’s ECU, which is the central command module that controls the complete powertrain.
Unexpectedly, the temperature of the oxygen that is rushing into the engine can have a significant impact. The actual oxygen (O2) content and its concentration are determined by the temperature of the air, which affects performance and MPG.
As a result, an “intake air temperature” (or IAT) sensor in your car will measure this. Your ECU will carefully manage the engine to run as powerfully as it can without wasting too much fuel with the use of that data. impact driveability, or both.
But suppose the IAT sensor malfunctions? A P0113 diagnostics code is displayed when that happens in your car, if and when it is identified. Thus, what does a P0113 code indicate?
An Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor: What Is It?
Before examining P0113, it is essential to comprehend what its linked component does. Thus, what exactly can an “intake air temperature” (IAT) sensor do?
In essence, an IAT sensor measures the temperature of the air passing through the intakes and into the engine, as we briefly mentioned earlier. It will then inform the ECU of this temperature information (or PCM, or ECM, depending on your vehicle).
We are all aware that an internal combustion engine needs both air and fuel to combust. The air’s exact temperature is less important in the real world than it is in this case.
Instead, the amount of oxygen they contain is important. Moreover, the characteristics of hotter or cooler air may have a considerable impact on their density, necessitating a different amount of fuel to ignite it:
- Cold Air: Denser than hot air, with more oxygen available (O2). To maintain an appropriate air-to-fuel ratio and ensure an equal burn, colder air requires more fuel.
- Hot Air: compared to cold air, it is less dense and has lower oxygen availability (O2). To maintain an optimal air-to-fuel ratio and ensure uniform combustion, hot air requires less fuel.
So, we may extrapolate how these two circumstances affect the driveability of your car. Better performance and torque can be anticipated at lower air temperatures.
The check engine light by Wikiuser100000 / CC BY-SA 3.0. If the check engine light and the P0113 error code return, you can start diagnosing the IAT sensor (or another IAT sensor code). Also, because you have the OBD scanner available, pay close attention to the real-time data input from the IAT sensor.
It’s because the oxygen level in the hotter air is so low. Hotter air causes the ECU to pump less fuel into the engine as it attempts to balance the air-to-fuel ratio. Increasing MPG results in decreased performance.
Where Is the IAT Sensor Located In a Car?
To ensure complete combustion, keep in mind that an engine will attempt to keep its air-to-fuel ratio near the ideal stoichiometric ratio of 14.7:1. In other terms, 1 part (or gram) of fuel contains 14.7 parts (or grams) of air.
The ECU will pump less fuel to balance the situation if there is less oxygen in the engine (as is the case with hot air). That’s just because a burn doesn’t require as much fuel.
The IAT sensor measures the air temperature and oxygen density. What is the procedure for an intake air temperature (IAT) sensor? To begin with, the IAT sensor is often positioned inside the intake manifolds.
In some cars, the mass airflow (MAF) sensor, which determines the volume and airflow rate, and the IAT sensor may be housed within a single module.
On some, the IAT sensor is a component of a MAP sensor (manifold absolute pressure, which measures air and vacuum pressure). Be aware that some engines might have multiple IAT sensors.
This may be accurate for engines with split or independent intake manifolds. V8 or V6 engines with excellent performance are two examples. If necessary, they can have one IAT sensor for each manifold.
The IAT sensor will in any event be situated on or close to the intakes, open to the incoming fresh air. Just for clarification, the IAT sensor may go by a variety of names. If your vehicle is more than ten years old or depending on the make and model:
- The Air Change Temperature (ACT) Sensor
- The Vane Air Temperature (VAT) Sensor
- The Manifold Charging Temperature (MCT) Sensor
- The Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) Sensor
- The Charge Temperature Sensor (CTS)
How Do IAT Sensors Work In a Car?
But how exactly does this IAT sensor function? The IAT sensor’s tip is a thermistor inside, kept open to incoming air. As a result, it adjusts electrical resistance per temperature to monitor it and give the ECU feedback. In most autos, IAT (intake air temperature) sensors come in two different varieties:
- NTC, or Negative Temperature Coefficient: When the air is cold, they have high electrical resistance, but when the air warms up, that resistance begins to decrease.
- PTC, or Positive Temperature Coefficient: When the air is cold, they have low electrical resistance, but once the air warms up, its resistance will start to rise.
It begins when the IAT sensor receives a reference voltage from the ECU (or ECM, or PCM). This is typically in the range of 5 or so volts.
The voltage reading circles back to the ECU as either a greater or lower value depending on the resistance (as air temperature varies). The ECU then determines the air temperature and O2 density solely based on the resistance given out by the IAT sensor.
An IAT sensor is employed in the majority of modern automobiles for purposes other than engine combustion. Currently, an automobile may have up to three IAT sensors operating simultaneously.
A typical onboard diagnostics (OBD) handheld scanner by Arp. With the use of an OBDII diagnostics kit, examine each error code. Following the completion of all of those steps, you can test drive your car and attempt to erase all error codes from the ECU. If the check engine light and the P0113 error code return, you can start diagnosing the IAT sensor (or another IAT sensor code).
As we’ve already mentioned, one of them is devoted to the engine. There are two more in the meantime, scattered throughout the vehicle:
- One is used to gauge the outside air temperature, typically for climate control, outside the car. or simply to demonstrate how hot it is outside. This sensor is concealed either behind the grille or next to the windshield.
- Another is for controlling the climate and measuring the air temperature inside the car. Infrared is typically used to measure body temperature (both yours and that of the other occupants) and regulate heating and cooling as necessary.
An IAT Voltage Output: What Does It Look Like?
In conclusion, cooler air will cause your IAT sensor’s resistance value to be high. In contrast, your IAT sensor’s resistance value will be lower in hotter air.
The amount of fuel that is injected into the engine will therefore change as the ECU reads this air temperature and oxygen density data. The fuel injectors open wider when it is cold, allowing more gasoline to enter, and the opposite is true when it is hot.
Higher resistance at lower temperatures results in higher voltage. On the other hand, reduced resistance at higher temperatures results in lower voltage.
Once more, the voltage and resistance values from individual IAT sensors will vary depending on the make and type of the car. For accurate readings from your car’s IAT sensors, it’s a good idea to consult the owner’s or service handbook.
On a related issue, you may also notice that voltage measurements in the intakes at normal air temperatures will always remain below the 5V reference signaled by the ECU.
If the return voltage from the IAT sensor that the ECU receives is at or higher than 5V, it could indicate one of two problems. Either the air is excessively hot, or there is a problem with the IAT sensor, which is returning false values.
What Does the Error Code P0113 Mean?
A P0113 error code will appear if either of the aforementioned events occurs. What does that signify, then? Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit High Input can be the text of the accompanying error notice.
The voltage reading is high, or far greater than the 5V that an IAT sensor’s electrical resistance should typically minimize, in this case.
An IAT sensor should only return 4.6V to the ECU at most. This is essentially equal to the IAT sensor reporting -40°C (negative numbers in Celsius and Fahrenheit have the same meaning).
The word “sensor 1,” on the other hand, indicates that one of two or more IAT sensors have failed. P0113, when viewed as a whole, denotes that IAT Sensor 1 is reading inconsistently or abnormally.
If the resistance is too low, or, to put it another way, if the air temperature in the intakes is too high, P0113 might be activated. It should be noted that temperature (being excessively high) alone won’t affect the results for resistance and voltage.
It might be brought on by an IAT sensor that is broken, filthy, or blocked. In addition to P0113, you should keep an eye out for the following error codes associated with IAT sensors:
A three-wire oxygen sensor by Mnemo / CC BY-SA 3.0. The temperature of the oxygen that is flowing into the engine can unexpectedly have a big effect. The temperature of the air determines the actual oxygen (O2) content and concentration, which has an impact on performance and MPG.
- Code P0095 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Malfunction
- Code P0096 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Range or Performance
- Code P0097 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Low Input
- Code P0098 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit High Input
- Code P0099 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Intermittent or Erratic
- Code P0110 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit Malfunction
- Code P0111 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit Range or Performance
- Code P0112 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit Low Input
- Code P0114 for Intake Air Temperature Sensor 1 Circuit Intermittent or Erratic
Why Does a P0113 Error Code Occur?
It is not hot enough to heat an IAT sensor to the point where it will result in a P0113 error signal, even if you are driving through one of the world’s hottest deserts.
Although hot air from the heat radiating from the engine could cause P0113, mechanical and electrical problems are more likely to be to blame. It could be caused by the intake air temperature sensor directly or by issues elsewhere. They consist of:
- Faulty, broken, frayed, or disconnected cabling that connects the IAT sensor circuit to the ECU.
- The pins and connectors surrounding the IAT sensor have corrosion and obvious damage or wear.
- The circuits of the IAT sensor short out or get caught in an open circuit. This holds for both the original reference 5V circuit leading to the IAT sensor and the signal circuit reporting back to the ECU.
- The wiring of the IAT sensor is placed too close to other high-voltage lines and parts (such as spark plugs, an alternator, etc.), which could result in electromagnetic fields that distort the voltage readings.
- As a result of debris or oil contamination entering the intakes, IAT sensors get clogged and unclean. The positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system in your car could allow oil to enter the intake system.
- The air temperature can be misread by internal issues with the thermistor and measurement components of the IAT sensor.
- A dirty or clogged air filter that restricts airflow to the IAT sensor and engine. Your intake system has to work harder as a result, which could raise the temperature of the intake air.
- A faulty mass airflow (MAF) sensor could push more air than is necessary into the engine. This could cause the intake system to overheat and raise the temperature of the intake air.
- ECU (or ECM) that is faulty and requires reprogramming or software updating (this is uncommon but is nonetheless feasible).
What Symptoms are Associated with P0113 Code?
One of the most subtle issues your car can experience is a P0113 error code. As a result, it may be difficult to identify or recognize telltale symptoms.
A defective IAT sensor will eventually start to show obvious indicators of failure, though, given enough time. That will probably lead to an uneven air-to-fuel ratio, which will compromise driveability and performance without providing the ECU with information on the density of oxygen in the air:
The MAF sensor in a diesel engine by Antonín Ryska / CC BY-SA 4.0. The mass airflow (MAF) sensor, which gauges volume and airflow rate, and the IAT sensor may be integrated into a single module in some automobiles. On some, the MAP sensor’s IAT sensor is a part of it (manifold absolute pressure, which measures air and vacuum pressure).
- The P0113 code is stored in your dash’s check engine light (CEL), which also serves as a warning when anything is wrong.
- The starting problems, particularly in cooler weather. It will be more difficult for the engine to crank due to the uneven air-to-fuel ratio and potential intake system overheating.
- With time, the increased fuel use will get worse. Again, a defective IAT sensor would fail to communicate the composition of the air to the ECU. Because of this, the ECU may over-fuel the engine since it is unable to control the air-to-fuel ratio effectively.
- The power loss and stuttering while accelerating. This time, the engine receives insufficient fuel because your ECU is unable to regulate the air-to-fuel ratio.
- The cylinder or cylinders not firing properly. Incomplete combustion will happen if the fuel and air are not combined properly.
- Uneven idle and varying RPMs (engine speed). In colder temperatures, your car will sound and feel rougher. Also, there is a greater chance that your engine will stall out while you are driving or idling.
- Emissions test failure. Unburned fuel will be expelled from the tailpipes if your engine is running rich (too much fuel, not enough air). You would see thick, smoky, black plumes of smoke, and your emissions test would fail due to the increased pollution.
How Can a P0113 Error Code Be Diagnosed and Fixed?
A P0113 error code can help you identify that you have a malfunctioning IAT sensor, and you can immediately start doing a full diagnosis to fix the issue.
This speeds up the process of tackling the problem at hand by allowing us to focus on its primary causes. IAT sensor failure, code P0113, is typically not seen as a major problem. Hence, there is no need for immediate repairs.
Your car is not in immediate danger. Also, although this will depend on how severe the problem is, it won’t have a significant effect on how well your car works.
Be aware, though, that even a seemingly unimportant issue, if left unattended for a while, can grow into something more significant. In P0113’s scenario, it is not a good idea to continue using an IAT sensor that is broken for an extended period.
if the intake system of the engine becomes a little too warm. The ECU will continue to lack feedback on the air-to-fuel ratio if there is another issue with the MAF sensor or the electrics of the IAT sensor.
If you ignore this, your engine may suffer internal scarring and irreparable damage if you run it too rich or lean for an extended period. A quick trip to the workshop is therefore advised.
Step 1: Check for Any Other Error Codes Other Than P0113
To begin with, let’s confirm that the only diagnostic codes you’re getting are P0113 and any others that have to do with IAT sensors (as we previously mentioned).
Diagnose those first if you’ve seen another error code that would explain why your engine’s air-to-fuel ratio isn’t optimal.
Check each trouble code using an OBDII diagnostics kit. After completing all of those steps, you can try to remove all error codes from the ECU and test drive your automobile.
You can begin diagnosing the IAT sensor if the check engine light returns along with a P0113 code (or another IAT sensor code).
Moreover, pay great attention to the real-time data input from the IAT sensor because you have the OBD scanner on hand.
While the OBD is hooked, try to locate the IAT sensor and unplug it. Does the live stream instantly drop to -40°F? If so, one of the sensor’s circuitry, wire, or both are shorted.
An engine control unit (ECU) by Mgiardina09 / CC BY-SA 3.0. As the ECU reads this information about the air temperature and oxygen density, the amount of fuel that is pumped into the engine will fluctuate. When it’s chilly outside, the fuel injectors open wider, letting more gasoline in. When it’s hot outside, the converse is true.
Step 2: Perform a Thermal and Visual Inspection
Let’s examine the IAT sensor in more detail now that the OBD scanner is out of the way. A visual inspection of the sensor, paying special attention to the pins, connectors, and wires that run to and away from the IAT sensor, can be our first step. The most frequent causes of failure with these are electrical problems.
We can next move on to taking a temperature reading:
- Once your engine is running, let it idle for a while to get it warmed up.
- Buy an infrared thermometer for yourself.
- Then, place the thermometer near the IAT sensor and engine coolant (or antifreeze). You might instead use the live feed for the intake air temperature provided by your OBD tool for the latter.
- Compare the temperature measurements right away. The IAT sensor is operating properly if they are the same (about comparable, or if the intake air is significantly hotter). However, the sensor may be malfunctioning if the intake air temperature is stated to be lower than your coolant temperature.
- However, let’s check the wiring and connectors surrounding the IAT sensor one more time before drawing that conclusion. You can also start visually checking the air filter and intake system. You should clean or replace it first if it’s soiled, clogged, or drenched in oil.
Step 3: Examine the IAT Sensor’s Output Resistance
Last but not least, a fast resistance check can be used to determine the state of the IAT sensor:
- Get a multimeter and unplug the IAT sensor from its attachment. Make sure the scale is set to the ohm/resistance scale.
- Measure the resistance passing through the IAT sensor at room temperature.
- The IAT sensor’s thermistor tip can then be heated using a hairdryer.
- The IAT sensor’s resistance measurements ought to drop as the temperature rises.
- The IAT sensor has failed if the resistance hasn’t changed or if it’s infinite (displaying as OL in the multimeter).
You have two choices if the results of all the current diagnoses indicate that the IAT sensor is malfunctioning. Cleaning the sensor would be the first step. You can either use an electronic part cleaner or a specific MAF (mass air flow) sensor cleaner. Both are effective in cleaning the IAT sensor.
If the sensor is still intact, this is excellent. But, if it’s just filthy, clogged, or tainted with oil or other debris. It’s an easy, affordable remedy. If the IAT sensor has otherwise permanently failed, you will need to replace it. The entire price of replacement is often between $40 and $250.
That includes both labor and components. An IAT sensor can be purchased for as low as $20 for parts alone or as much as $150 for higher-end models. Labor is inexpensive as well, costing an additional $20 to $100 if you aren’t doing it yourself. The IAT sensor is frequently simple to access and simple to replace.
How Much Will the Code P0113 Repair Cost at a Mechanic Shop?
Everything from a defective sensor to improper wiring can result in P0113. Without fully assessing the problem first, it is hard to provide a precise estimate.
To help you learn everything there is to know about OBD2, including how to utilize it to diagnose your car, we’ve put together a thorough guide.
A car engine bay by Shmee150 / CC BY-SA 4.0. if the engine’s intake system becomes a touch too heated. If there is still another problem with the MAF sensor or the electrics of the IAT sensor, the ECU will continue to lack feedback on the air-to-fuel ratio.
Most shops will begin with an hour of “diag time” if you bring your car in for a diagnosis (the time spent in labor diagnosing your specific issue). This normally costs between $75 and $150, depending on the labor rate at the shop.
If you hire the shop to handle the repairs, many, if not most, will deduct this diagnosis price from any necessary work. A shop will then be able to provide you with an accurate estimate for repairs to resolve your P0113 error.
Code P0113: Possible Repair Expenses
The underlying problem for error number P0113 can require one or more of the fixes listed below. The estimated cost of repair includes both the cost of the necessary parts and the cost of the labor needed to complete the repair for each potential repair.
- IAT sensor replacement: $90 to $100
- Diagnostic of an electrical system: $90 to $120
Is the DTC P0113 Code Serious?
The minor problem with error number P0113 is acknowledged. Your car may not be in immediate danger as a result of the causes that result in this code, but if the issue is not fixed within a reasonable amount of time, it could get worse and cause misfires.
Under no circumstances should you drive a car that is misfiring. Your car needs to be diagnosed and repaired right away by a mechanic if you want to prevent this.
Numerous different error codes share the same symptoms and root cause as a P0113 error code. Codes P0110 through P0114 all indicate symptoms and causes that are comparable.
Because of this, a lot of these codes will co-occur, making it more challenging to identify the primary problem. To identify the underlying cause of these similar codes appearing in your car, it is imperative to have your vehicle scanned by a skilled mechanic for them.
Can I Drive My Car After Receiving a P0113 Code?
This error code denotes a high sensor circuit in your car. This should not be mistaken for a sensor reading of a high intake air temperature. For instance, an IAT communicating to the engine control module that the air intake temperature is negative 40 degrees Fahrenheit has a high circuit of 5 volts.
Hence, even though error codes P0110-P0114 are not critical enough to prevent you from operating your car, you should look into them right away. This is particularly true given that each of these codes has a common underlying issue that could result in an engine misfire.
How Simple Is the P0113 Code Diagnosis?
The first stage in the process is to establish whether you have a valid license to operate a motor vehicle in your state.
It is advised to seek the assistance of a qualified mechanic for a thorough diagnosis because this process can prove to be challenging and complex, especially given that this specific code is frequently joined by others with comparable causes and symptoms.
How Complex Is the P0113 Code Diagnosis?
All connections must be cleaned, and the wiring of the IAT sensor must be examined if the air intake temperature is lower than the coolant temperature. The IAT sensor has to be replaced if this or any other related errors continue to appear.
A typical car engine by オーバードライブ83 / CC BY-SA 4.0. P0113 may be brought on by hot air from the engine’s heat radiation, but mechanical and electrical issues are more likely to be to blame. It can be brought on directly by problems with the intake air temperature sensor or by problems elsewhere.
The next step is to determine whether your air filter needs to be updated and if your IAT sensor is functioning properly. If the code reappears after the filter has been changed, your PCM or MAF sensor may need to be replaced.
These procedures are extremely complicated, and correctly maintaining these car parts is essential to fixing the problem. It is recommended to let skilled mechanics handle repairs.
What are the Common Errors In P0113 Code Diagnosis?
- Failure to visually verify connections and wiring
- Not adhering to the manufacturer’s precise test protocol in its entirety and skipping steps
- IAT sensors should not only be replaced when tests reveal a fault
- Without checking the ECM data to determine whether the temperature output from the sensor is as expected and not adding a new or known-good sensor to the harness
Additional Information Relating to Error Code P0113, Including Its Symptoms, Causes, as well as Diagnosis
- The OBD II code P0, which denotes a fault with fuel and air metering, is extended by error code P0113.
- P0113 denotes a problem with the car’s intake air temperature sensor, which uses a thermistor to gauge temperature.
- The temperature will increase if the thermistor’s resistance increases, whereas a lower resistance will result in an incorrect code.
- Increased fuel consumption, misfires, and difficulty or hesitation starting the car are all signs of a P0113 code.
- A dirty air filter, broken or corroded wiring, a malfunctioning PCM, and problems with the IAT or MAF sensors are among the most typical reasons for a P0113 code.
- P0113 is regarded as a minor problem, but if it isn’t fixed right away, it could lead to more serious issues like misfires.
- P0113 may co-occur with other codes that are identical to it, making it more difficult to determine the main cause.
- It is advised to seek the assistance of a qualified mechanic for diagnosis, particularly for P0113 because it frequently occurs with other codes.
- The IAT sensor, air filter, MAF sensor, and PCM all involve intricate procedures that should only be performed by skilled mechanics.
- It is critical to identify the underlying reason for codes P0110 through P0114 because they all have similar symptoms and causes.
That should wrap up our discussion of the P0113 error number, which indicates that your IAT sensor is giving inaccurate readings. Overall, it’s not as severe or disastrous as other auto problems.
Your engine won’t be destroyed right away, but if you leave it alone for too long, it will undoubtedly be scarred. This means that you should get the problem fixed soon because your car won’t run properly and will also use a lot of fuel.
The cost of replacing it is not prohibitively high either. IAT sensors are some of the least expensive to repair or completely replace. You must keep in mind, though, that some cars have IAT sensors integrated into the MAF sensor.
Be careful because replacing one of those will cost you more than $500. Having said that, spending the money to make sure your engine operates easily, effectively, and smoothly is well worth it.
Jim Wicks is the founder of MotorVehicleHQ. With over two decades of experience in the automotive industry and a degree in Automotive Technology, Jim is a certified car expert who has worked in various roles ranging from a mechanic, car dealership manager, to a racing car driver. He has owned more than 20 cars over the past 15 years. Ask him about any vehicle you see on the road and he can tell you the make, model and year. He loves the aesthetics of all things cars, and keeps his vehicles in pristine condition.
In his free time, Jim enjoys getting his hands dirty under the hood of a classic car or taking long drives along the country roads. His favorite car? A 1967 Shelby GT500, a true classic that, according to Jim, “represents the pure essence of American muscle.”